|臺灣獼猴桃果實發育期間成分變化之研究=Studies on the Changes in Composition of Taiwan Kiwifruit during Fruit Development
|周慧娜; 區少梅; 倪正柱; Chou, Hui-na; Ou, Andi Shau-mei; Nee, Cheng-chu;
|獼猴桃; 抗壞血酸; 硬度; 可溶性固形物; Kiwifruit; Ascorbic acid; Firmness; Soluble solids content;
|隨著季節之改變，獼猴桃果實於外表形態及內容物上皆有變化，而以硬度及可溶性固形物可做為採收成熟度之指標。如First Empire'達到採收成熟度之果實硬度為 7.06Kg(tip:7.2mm)及'江西8151'則為6.68Kg。First Empire採收時之可溶性固形物含量為6.2°Brix，而'江西8151'則為6.6°Brix。闊葉獼猴桃（Actinidia latifolia）於果實發育初期之抗壞血酸含量可高達2688.34mg/100g，隨著果實發育期下降為1962.62mg/100g、1972.72mg/100g，直至採收期則趨穩定，為當今臺灣所有果實（含西印度櫻桃1362.32mg/100g）之冠。其他有機酸奎寧酸於果實發育初期遠比蘋果酸、抗壞血酸及檸檬酸高，可達1500mg/100g以上，於成熟期時則會下降；蘋果酸剛開始低量之後稍微增加然後穩定下降至500mg/100g以下；檸檬酸濃度於果實發育初期低量，然後很快的增加直至採收期可達1000mg/100g以上。而主要之糖類為果糖、葡萄糖及蔗糖，其中葡萄糖及果糖含量較高，蔗糖濃度較低，但皆隨著發育期而逐漸增加。
|The soluble solids content and firmness of kiwifruit could be used as indexes of maturation and harvesting time. In this study, the firmness and soluble solids content of 'First Empire' variety are 7.06kg (tip:7.2 mm) and 6.2°Brix, respectively, while those of 'Jiang See 8151' variety are 6.68 kg and 6.6°Brix, respectively. The ascorbic acid content of A. latifolia fruit at the young stage could be as high as 2688 mg/100g FW, then decreased to 1962g/100g FW and 1972 mg/100g FW during fruit developing stage. We found A. latifolia is one of the highest level in ascorbic acid, even higher than that of Malpighia glabra (1362mg/100g FW). For all organic acids, the content of quinic acid is the highest at the beginning of fruit development, then it decreased. While the citric acid increased gradually at later growth stage. The major sugars included fructose、glucose and sucrose. The contents of fructose and glucose were higher than that of sucrose, but they all increased as fruit growing. Actinidia latifolia, a Taiwan native kiwifruit, with super high content of ascorbic acid, growing widely in countryside (300-2200m from sea level) has great potential in horticulture.