| Mr. Tang Chun-i is one of the major figures of contemporary Neo-Confucianism, whose understanding and interpretation of traditional Chinese academia. Certainly, his interpretation of Mencian philosophy is also inclusive and deep. The article attempts to explor Tang's interpretation regarding Mencius' attitude toward "speech and quiescence" and "discourse and debate", and his mode of "discussing human nature and tao", to undertake an elaborate analysis and comprehensive induction, to point out some clues to Mencius' thought, and to illuminate the richness of Tang's interpretation and of the spiritual encounter between him and Mencius. From Tang's insightful discussion, through a dialectic reflection and derivation. I tend to attain a higher level of understanding about Mencius' perspective of spirituality, mode of thought, and style of expression.
Tang adopts Chuang Tzu's "disruptive discourse for stopping debating and forgetting words" in contrast with Mencius' two types of discourse and this sober rationality. The first part of the article analyzes and concludes that although Chung Tzu's breaking through discourse and forgetting words" is indispensable, it is much significant for Mencius to take over the moral burden of debating for the establishment of personhood". That is, in addition to his strong intention to awaken human awareness in a disorder world by soberly debating against the current, Mencius attained more a this-worldly, modest and "Golden Mean"-like wisdom than Chung Tzu did. Conversely, if this world had been in order, Mencius would not have debated and would have kept quiescence."making the distinction between human being and animal, and then emphasizing the originally good endowments of humankind" and d. proving the original goodness of human nature by means of "experiencing action without any other purpose" and "being pleased at rationality and righteousness and then self-sufficient". The last two points are more important, particularly, the third one. Tang compares Mencius' "distinction between humankind and animal" and "the identity between self and sainthood" to the "categorical conception" of Western intellectural tradition, in both static and dynamic way. The second part of the article reflects and analyzes Mencius' theory of category and Tang's interpretation, and illuminate the moral implication and spiritual depth of Mencius' teaching.
Finally, I come to the conclusion that the foundation of Mencius' mode of thought and style of expression is a prudent and patient attitude toward humankind. He had never lost the faith of the original goodness of human nature. This is a transcendent assertion from Mencius' noble and magnificent moral spirit, a manifestation of his boundless sympathy and reverence, that is, of modesty, inclusiveness, patience and sobriety. Therefore, all of other theoretical arguments merely provide some concrete examples to the goodness of human nature, to explan the function of moral mind in the phenomenal world, in order to reinforce one's faith in the self-actualization of sainthood and sagehood.