|國中家政科實施批判思考教學之成效研究=The Experimental Study of Application of Critical Thinking in Junior High School Home Economics Instruction
Huang, Feng Chueh;
Critical thinking strategy;
Home economics education;
| 本研究發展家政批判思考教學方案，驗證批判思考實驗教學方案之成效，探討其對學生批判思考能力與問題解決能力的影響。對師生教學行為的影響，及批判思考與學業成就的相關性。以臺北市敦化國中一年級學生為對象，實驗組83名，控制組81名。實驗組進行十二週家政科批判思考策略教學。主要發現：一、家政科批判思考教學方案對實驗組學生批判思考能力之增進，有顯著效果。實驗組學生在批判思考測驗總分及歸納、演繹、考察訊息的可信度三個分測驗得分，均顯著優於控制組；唯在確認假設此分測驗得分，發現實驗組與控制組無顯著差異。二、實驗教學後，實驗組之低分組及中分組在批判思考測驗總分及各分測驗之進步情形，皆達顯著差異；高分組在考察可信度分測驗之進步情形達顯著差異，但是在總分及歸納、演繹、確認假設各分測驗之進步情形，未達顯著差異。三、家政科批判思考教學方案對實驗組學生問題解決能力之增進，有顯著效果。實驗組學生在問題解決測驗總分及解釋推論、猜測原因、逆向猜測原因、預防問題等分測驗得分，均顯著優於控制組。唯在決定解決方法此分測驗得分，實驗組與控制組無顯著差異。四、實驗教學後，發現實驗組之低分組、中分組及高分組在問題解決測驗總分及各分測驗之進步情形，皆達顯著差異。五、批判思考能力與學業成就表現，有顯著正相關。即批判思考能力愈強者，其學業成就愈高。六、就實驗教學對師生教學的行為而逜，(一) 班級氣氛由沈默、少數人發言轉為踴躍發言、欲罷不能；(二) 學生的反應由被動轉為積極主動，由注重正確答案、全盤接納、無疑，進步到存疑、釋疑，具有辯證性的, 思考，能容多納異、尊重人性，條理分明的表達。分析增進本研究批判思考效能的因素：(一) 教材教法多樣化，給予學生較多元化思考和表達的空間；(二) 提供支持性學習環境，營造安全、自由、積極的學習氣氛，鼓勵學生提出見解，並尊重他人的意見；(三) 教學策略的妥善運用，(四) 安排學生上課座位以U型最佳，利於多向溝通。根據上述發現，本研究提出對國中家政教育之建議。
| The purposes of this study were to develop a critical thinking program (CTP) suitable for junior high students based on the theoretical framework and teaching model of Ennis Critical Thinking, and by undergoing a 12-week teaching experiment to evaluate the effects of CTP instruction on junior high school, students. The subjects of this study totaling 164 students were 7th grade students at Dwun Hwa junior High School (Taipei). Among them, 83 belong to the experiment group and 81 the control group. Critical thinking ability and problem-solving ability were used together to serve as an index to evaluate the teaching effects, while Cornell Critical Thinking Test Level X and Problem Solving Test were adopted as evaluation tools. The major results of CTP instruction indicated that 1.There was significant improvement in students' critical thinking ability by using CTP instruction. Further analysis on the experiment group showed that the effects of using this experimental method on low-score and medium-score teams were significant, however, the improvement of high-score team was less obvious. 2.There was significant improvement in students' problem-solving ability through CTP instruction. Further analysis on the experiment group showed that the effects of this experimental method on low-score, medium-score and high-score teams were all significant. 3.There was significant positive correlation between critical thinking ability and academic achievement. Students with higher critical thinking ability had higher academic achievement while those with lower critical thinking ability had lower academic achievement. 4.Great improvement could be found in the classroom teacher-student interaction and students' reaction by suing CTP instruction. The suggestions based on the process and results of this study in the hope to serve as references for future improvement and research on home economics education were proposed.