|Observing from the development of Neo Confucianism, through ＂The Philosophy of Spirit (Qi)＂, Chang Zhai the author, explicitly elaborated the principles of heaven as well as the nature of human, and established a doctrine that has duel meanings. From Cheng-Zhu school's point of view, the contrast ideas involving ＂the nature of universe/ the nature of human＂, ＂the virtues of heave/ the sensibility of human＂, ＂ethics outweighs human nature/ human nature outweighs ethics＂, and ＂the transformation of the universe/ the transformation of human＂ that Chang Zhai pointed out was a fundamental explanation for the principles of heaven. Meanwhile, the idea that ＂Heart rules senses and emotions＂, which he hardly mentioned about was characterized and developed into the philosophy of rationalism ＂with Zhu Xi's ＂Follow the principles of heaven instead of human desires＂, apart from his work ＂Correcting Youthful Ignorance (Cheng-meng). On the other hand, those scholars who contradicted with Zhu Xi also used the thesis from Chang Zhai's ＂The Philosophy of Spirit (Qi)＂ to point out the differences between ＂principle (Ii)＂ and ＂spirit (qi)＂ that Cheng-Zhu school forced to make, criticizing Zhu Xi for his statements that ＂the nature of human can only be purified by executing the principles of heaven＂ has framed the essence of ＂human nature＂. Confucian scholars such as Wang Ting-xiang (Xun-chuan, 1474-1544) in Ming Dynasty as well as Dai Zhen (Dong-yuan, 1723-1777) in Qing Dynasty are both the representatives. In a conclusion, scholars who either agree or contradict with Zhu Xi regarded Chang Zhai (Heng-qu)'s 'The Philosophy of Spirit (Qi)＂ the root of thoughts and therefore interpreted the Chang Zhai's philosophy in a creative way. Similarly, this article also intends to trace the origins, on one hand, in retrospect Chang Zhai's theory that ＂Human owns the nature of the universe＂ to find out the difficulties t at he could face with using the evidences that the critics opposed Neo Confucians; on the other hand, to explore a possibility of solution for the unsolved arguments, ＂the nature of heaven/ the nature of human＂. Both of which will be divided into 5 chapters for discussion.