|The main purpose of this article is to expound on the particular thought found in the Classic of the Filial Piety by Nakae Toju, the founder of the Tokugawa Japan’s Yangming Learning, and his late Tokugawa successor, Oshio Chusai. It shows that both scholars religiously dignified the thought of the filial piety. characteristic of Japanese Yangming Learning. In the first section, this article argues briefly that Japanese Yangming Learning should not be treated from a view-point of nationalistic passion, held by both modem Chinese and Japanese intellectuals, which falsified the Yangming Leaming. In the second section, the article analyzes Chu His’s Correclions 10 the Classic of Filial Piety (孝經刊誤) and his interpretation of ‘filial piety’ that provoked controversy among later Confucians. In principle: 1) in his Corrections, Chu pointed out that the phrase ‘a strict father equals Heaven’ in the original text of the Classic of Filial Piety would make people presumptuous. 2) As to the interrelation between ‘benevolence’ and ‘filial piety’, he argued that ‘filial piety’ is the foundation of ‘benevolence’ This led to the question whether the term ‘benevolence’ includes both transcendentalism and universalism of a moralistic substance in its meaning. Toju solved the matter of transcendentalism, while Chu Hsi criticized the matter of universalism, replacing ‘benevolence’ with ‘filial piety’ as a transcendental and universalistic substance. The third section explains how Toju dealt with Chu’s criticism of the concept ‘enshrine Father as Heaven’ (嚴父配天),thus, strengthening ‘filial piety’ in a religious sense. The fourth section manifests the way Oshio Chusai completed Toju’s criticism of Chu Hsi, strengthening ‘filial piety’ as a moral substance, and switching the substantial interrelation between ‘benevolence’ and ‘filial piety’. Lastly, this work arrives at a succinct conclusion that also touches upon the religious traits of the Japanese Yangming Learning in terms of the definition of ‘filial piety’ by the both scholars.