- Yung Wing and the Early Chinese Students Studied in America 1872-1881
- Role Conflict, Family Dynamics and Individual Psychopathology in Cross-cultural Adaptation: Chinese Students in the U.S.
- Pattern of Adjustment of Chinese Students in America
|Yung Wing and the Early Chinese Students Studied in America 1872-1881=容閎與中國早期留美學生1872-1881
|高宗魯; 鄭雪玉; Kao, Timothy; Cheng, Maria;
|容閎; 中國; 留美; 學生; Sino-American cultural educational links; Chinese educational commission; Chinese overseas study; Yung Wing;
|In 1854, Yung Wing graduated from Yale as the first Chinese graduated from an American university. Under his continuous endeavor, in 1872, China began to send 120 boys to study abroad within four consecutive years. The historical event not only opened the door for Chinese overseas study, but also played a very important role in China's early modernization. The Chinese Educational Commission (CEC) students were supposed to stay in America for a twenty-year training period. But, what with China's Confucian conservatism and America's anti-Chinese moods, together with some other incidents, the educational scheme was terminated earlier than scheduled. All the students were abruptly called back in 1881. On the recall, except two students who had just graduated from Yale University, the rest were forced to leave their studies unfinished. However, after returning to China, the majority of them performed very outstandingly in many fields. They contributed what they had learned to their homeland and received very distinguished achievement. Personal letters are important and helpful in highlighting many crucial events. Yung Wing and the CEC students left near one hundred English letters in America, dated from 1850 to 1939. They were invaluable firsthand materials to provide more understanding about those early Chinese students' learning experience in America expecting to complete the blank chapter of the history of Sino-American Educational/ cultural links, as well as to serve as evidence of the implementation and evaluation of Chinese overseas study policy.